【英语阅读训练--归纳概括主题】 英语阅读概括

来源:英语教案 发布时间:2019-07-11 08:45:47 点击:

英语阅读训练--归纳概括主题

( Title and Main Idea )

归纳概括中心主旨的题目是高考必考题目,考查考生通过阅读理解, 总结归纳,找出文章中心意思的能力。 要做好这类题考生必须区分主要信息和次要信息;既看到树木, 更看到森林;要跳出一词一句,而俯瞰全文;要通读全文,通篇理解。 找出主题句(topic sentence) 是一个有用的方法。

最佳题目(the best title)可以是一个短语词组,它除能概括文章的中心主旨外,还有吸引读者,引发阅读兴趣的任务。

考察文章主题的提问方式常用的有:

①The subject of the passage is ________.

②The main idea is ________.

③The title is ________.

④The passage mainly talks about ________.

⑤What topic is treated in this passage ________.

⑥The point of the passage is that ________.

⑦What’s the topic of the first paragraph?

⑧The best headline for the passage would be ________.

⑨Which title best gives the idea of the passage?

⑩What’s the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph?

1. 主题句位于段首

其特点是演绎式,开门见山提出论点,再分别说明。例如:

People have known about gold for a very long time(主题句). The early cave people knew of gold (论据). Gold cups were used by people who lived more than 5,000 years ago(论据). Gold necklaces and other things made of gold have been found in Egypt. They are also more than 5,000 years old(论据).

Q: The main idea of the passage is ________.

A. gold is widely used

B. many things can be made of gold.

C. gold was known by people long times ago.

D. gold was found 5,000 years ago

[分析] C 与文章主题同义。在阅读中要注意,所有用语证明论点的根据和理由都应具一定的逻辑关系。我们可以按照这种逻辑关系推断出结论。

2. 主题句位于段尾

其特点是归纳式,即细节在前,概括在后。例如:

One of the most important uses of gold is for money. Gold can be used to make rings, earrings, and other things. Gold is also used to make gold leaf, a very flat ribbon (带)of gold that is often used on picture frames. Cups and dishes can also be made from gold. Gold has many uses.

Q: The best title of this passage is ________.

A. the most important uses of gold

B. wide uses of gold

C. many things made of gold

D. the importance of gold.

[分析] 这一段是从金子最主要的用途谈起,然后用also, often 等词列举出其他用途,最后归纳出 “gold has many uses”这一主题,与B 选项一致。

3. 主题句位于段中

其特点是:引题—主题—解释或提问—回答—解释。例如:

A port is a place where ships stay when they are not sailing. Ships usually load or unload at a port. So, a spaceport is a place where ―spaceships‖ stay when they are not flying. It has special buildings where the spaceships are kept. It also has supplies needed for space travel.

Q: The passage mainly tells us ________.

A. what a spaceport is

B. that a port is a place where ships stay

C. that a spaceport is a special building

D. what a port and a spaceport are

[分析] 本段是由“港口是船不航行时停留的地方” 这一人人都明白的概念引出 “宇航港是宇宙飞船不飞行时停留的地方” 这一抽象难懂的概念,进而加以解释。其中心就是向人们介绍什么是宇航港,所以A 选项是主题。

4. 首尾呼应的主题句

通常是指文章开头和结尾相互对应。了解这一点有利于根据文章开头和结尾进行综合推理。例如:

Shu Pulong has helped at least 1,000 people bitten by snakes. ―It was seeing people with snake bites that led me to this career.‖ he said.

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

―The sad story touched me so much that I decided to devote myself to helping people bitten by snakes.‖ Shu said.

Q: What do you think the writer talks about in the missing part of the a rticle?

A. The sad story of the people bitten by snakes.

B. How did Shu help the people?

C. Why did Shu help the people?

D. How much did Shu like his career?

[分析] 从文章开头“看到被蛇咬伤的人们使我选择了这一职业”和段末“这悲惨的故事使我如此震动,因此我决定把一生献给这些人们”可以看出本文的主题是“苏普龙如何成为蛇医”。那么中间一段是说明“那悲惨的故事”的,答案是A 。

5. 无主题句

依据文中事实,细节,观点,综合归纳成一般概念。例如:

Good afternoon. This is your captain speaking. We have been warned of the danger of strong air turbulence ahead for the next forty miles or so. Passengers are therefore strongly asked to remain in their seats with their seatbelt on for their safety and not to use the restrooms during that dangerous period if at all possible. During the time young children should be firmly fastened into their seats.

Please observe these precaution until the seatbelt warring sign has gone off. Lunch will be served after we have passed through the air turbulence zone. Thank you.

Q: The best title for this passage would be ________.

A. The Captain and the Passengers

B. Something About the Strong Air Turbulence

C. For your Own Safety

D. Don’t Move Around and Keep Still

[分析]此文是一篇广播通知,告知旅客飞机可能遇到强气流前的注意事项,完全出于安全考虑,由此可判断此文的中心是选项C 所给内容。此问不是知识介绍,不选B 。答案D 中心不突出,不明确,旅客一听或许以为是飞机被劫持了。

Reading Training Course

Paragraph 1

What are the tallest plants in the world? Many people would say that giant redwood trees of California. Actually, the tallest plants are in the oceans. These are seaweeds that grow almost seven hundred feet tall. Compared to this height, the giant redwoods are pygmies of only four hundred feet. To get some idea of these heights, consider the Statue of Liberty. This huge figure rises only three hundred feet.

1. The passage can be entitled __________.

A. Redwoods in California B. The Statue of Liberty

C. Seaweed D. The Tallest Plants

Paragraph 2

We think of a flood or an earthquake as a natural disaster. To many of nature" s animals, however, the greatest disaster is the coming of large numbers of humans. When settlers came from the East to America" s great western plains, they killed millions of bison, poisoned the prairie dogs, and shot the coyotes. All this upset the area"s balance of nature. For the animals, it was worse than a flood or earthquake.

2. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

A. Nature Balance Itself B. Floods and Earthquakes

C. American Settlers D. Humans--a Disaster to Nature

Paragraph 3

When a piece of paper burns, it is completely changed. The ash that is left behind does not look like the original piece of paper. When dull-red rust appears on a piece of tinware (锡制品), it is quite different from the gleaming tin. The tarnish that forms on silverware is a new

substance unlike the silver itself. Animal tissue (组织) is unlike the vegetable substance from which it is made. A change in which the original substance is turned into a different substance is called a chemical change.

5. The author writes this passage to tell us _________.

A. how paper burns B. that dull-red on tinware is unlike tin itself

C. that animal tissue is different from plant"s D. what a chemical change is

Paragraph 4

One of the most important weapons used during the Second World War was not a weapon used against people, but rather a drug used against disease. The wartime use of penicillin saved thousands of lives. In the First World War, for example, pneumonia was responsible for

eighteen percent of all the deaths in the United States army. In the Second World War, the rate went down to less than one percent. In addition, penicillin was instrumental in keeping wounds from getting infected and in helping to speed the healing process of those wounds that did become infected.

1. which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

A. A Dangerous Weapon B. Guns in the Second World War

C. A Terrible Pneumonia D. An Important Drug

Paragraph 5

It is possible to do many simple tricks with numbers. Here is one trick. It has several separate steps.

First, write down your house number. For example, if your address is 73 Lemon Street, you would write down 73. After you write down your house address, next double it. Then add five to this doubled number. For example, if your address was 73 and you doubled it, you would get 146. Then, if you added five, you"d get 151. Then multiply this number by 50. In our example here, you"ll get 7550. The next step is to add your age to this total. For example, if you"re 26 years old, you should add 26 to this total. In our example here, the result would be 7576. After that you have to add the number of days in a year, which is 365. In our example

here, 365 added to 7576 is 7941.

The final step is this: Subtract 615 from the number that you have. Take away 615 from the total, In our example, 7941 minus 615 is 7326.

The result here - 7326 - is the trick. The first part of the number is the address and the last part of the number is the age of the person. That is, 73 is the address that we started with, and 26 is the age that we used.

5. The best title of the passage is __________.

A. The number tricks B. A trick with numbers

C. An interesting problem D. How to work out a difficult trick Passage 6

An Australian wildlife park attendant survived a crocodile attack after her father jumped on the huge crocodile"s back and dugout its eyes as the horrified tourists looked on.

Karla Bredl, 21, was in a fairly good condition in good care in hospital with a broken bone, a broken leg and some injuries after the attack.

The 4.5 - metre crocodile caught Karla Bredl around the leg and then the waist when she fell during a crocodile feeding show for tourists.

Karla"s father seized a long-handled tool and beat the crocodile about the head to force it to let go of her, but the tool was doing nothing. So he jumped on its back and stuck his fingers in its eyes and the crocodile let go of her.

1. The best title of the passage is _________.

A. The Hateful Crocodile B. Father Saved Daughter"s Life

C. A Terrible Accident D. The Dangerous Place

猜词法(Meanings Guess)

该题型常见的设题方式有:

⏹ 1.The word________could best be replaced by________.

⏹ 2.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word________.

⏹ 3.By______the writer means________.

⏹ 4.In the ______paragraph, the word"_______" means (refers to )_______.

⏹ 5.The underlined word_______is closest in meaning to _______.

方法1:定义,解释法(Definition)

通过下定义的方法,来解释说明某个生词或短语的意义。

信息词:is, was, means, that is, that is to say, in other words, refer to ...

☐ ☐

[No.1](NMET 1998 B篇)He was one of 80 middle school students from China attending a month-long "Youth Summit". ........The was aimed at increasing understanding and friendship between young students of the two countries through visits and discussion.

55.The words "Youth Summit " refer to _______.

A.visits to the Nixon"s Library

B.the Chinese students" visit to the US

C.a meeting discussing relations between China and the US

D.activities to strenghen the ties between China and the US.

[No.2](2005年广东卷B 篇)

Leadership means power, commands respect and, most important, encourages achievement. Unlike vitamin C, leadership skills can’t be easily swallowed down. They must be carefully cultivated.

60.The underlined word‖ cultivated‖ roughly means _____.

A. developed B. compared C. examined D. encouraged

[No.3] (2005江西卷D 篇)

The plant is often pruned so that it remains only 60 to 90 centimeters high. is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves. It is from these shoots that the best tea is got.

68.In the first paragraph, the word ―pruning‖ means ____.

A. Regular cutting of the plants

B. Frequent watering

C. Regular use of chemicals

D. Growing the plants high in the mountain

方法2:同义法(Synonym)

在词或短语之间有并列连词或它们所连接的两项内容在含义上是接近的或递进的,由此确定生词的词义。

⏹ drinking as harmful.

⏹ 例2. (2001年北京春季 B 篇)He called to us that there was no one there, so we

ran down to the bank, looking everywhere carefully. We could not understand where the man had gone. When it got dark, we went back to our camp feeling ⏹ 57.The word "bewildered" in the text probably means_________.

A. ashamed B. nervous

C. unable to understand D. eager to know something

方法3:反义法(Antonym)利用反义词说明生词的意义。

⏹ 信息词:however, but, while, instead, unlike, on the other hand...

⏹ ⏹ ⏹ 例3.(NMET 1999 B篇)Computer people talk a lot about the need for other

people to become computer experts have to learn not to tell people about computers, but have to be able to answer all questions people ask, people don"t have to learn computer terms (术语), but the experts have to explain in plain language. The computers are becoming "people-literate".

⏹ 57.We can infer from the text that "computer-literate" means__________.

A. being able to afford a computer

B. being able to write computer programs

C. working with the computer and finding out its value

D. understanding the computer and knowing how to use it

方法4:上下文分析法(context)

生词上下文起解释说明作用的句子,为我们猜测生词提供了大量的信息。

[No.1](2004年江苏卷D 篇)

but his wife was always mad at him for his idleness(懒散). Morning, noon, and night, her tongue was endlessly going, so that he was forced to escape to the outside if the house ----the only side which, in truth, belongs to a .

70. The underlined words ―henpecked husband‖ probably means a man who ______.

A. likes hunting B. is afraid of hens

C. loves his wife D. is afraid of his wife

[No.2](2003年北京卷B 篇)

The new planet moves around a star much like our sun, however. Scientists discovered the planet by using a new planet-searching method, called ―‖.

59. The ―transit technique‖ can .

A. help dim(使暗淡) the light of a star

B. help scientists with a searchlight

C. help discover a bee on a planet

D. help find a planet moving before its star

[No.3](NMET 1997A篇)The 20 gold medal winners are all primary and middle school students under the age of 14. "Many of the problems are of college level and these pupils ]54.The underlined phrase "Figure out" in the text means___________.

A. guess B. add up C. work out D. study

方法5:逻辑关系(Logical method)(对比,转折,因果,让步等)

方法6:根据举例(Examples)

从所举事例处分析:生词的后面常常出现 ―for example, for instance, such as‖ 一类的词,这是作者通过举例来表述词义,表达观点

[No.1](2002年全国卷E 篇)

A child’s birthday party doesn’t have to be a ; it can be a basket of fun , according to Beth Aneclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4 and 18 months.

74、What does the underlined word ―hassle‖ probably mean?

A. a party designed by pecialists B. a plan requiring careful thought

C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble D. a demand made by guests

[No.2](2003年全国卷C 篇)

Fermat"s Last Theorem(定理). First put forward by the French mathematician Pierrede Fermat in the seventeenth century, the theorem had 65.Which of the following best explains the meaning of the word"baffle"as it is used in the text?

A. To encourage people to raise questions.

B. To cause difficulty in understanding.

C. To provide person with an explanation.

D. To limit people"s imagination. etc.

方法7:同位重述(appositive)

在文章中变换不同的词句表达同一种意思的习作手法叫重述。原句和重述句之间是同位语的关系。

[No.1](2004的辽宁卷B 篇)

Take for example. For many years, the bright red color of tomatoes and carrots on the thin bottle makes you feel that it is very good for your body. And the word ―green‖ today can keep food prices going up.

63. It can be inferred from the passage that V8 is a kind of .

A. vegetable dish

B. healthy juice

C. iced drink

D. red vegetable

[No.2](2002年上海卷D 卷)

The commonest problem was information . For example, people forgot the names of people whose face they knew, went into a room and forgot why they were there, mislaid something, or smoked a cigarette without realizing it.

85. According to the passage, the information ―storage failures‖ refer to .

A. the destruction of information collecting system

B. the elimination (除去) of one’s total memory

C. the temporary ( 暂时的) loss of part of one’s memory

D. the separation of one’s action from consciousness

[No.3](2001年全国卷A 篇)

The largest player---Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices – coaches. Santana sedans are the big favorite.

56. The words ―deluxe sedans‖, ―minivans‖ and ―station wagons‖ used in the text refer

to A. cars in the making B. car rental firms

C. cars for rent D. car makers

方法8:如标点(Punctuation)(冒号,破折号)构词法(Formation)

【例1】 It will be very hard but also very brittle — that is, it will break easily.

【例2】 We are on the nightshift — from midnight to 8 am — this week.

【例3】They are good diggers, and in Ranthambhore ( a wildlife park in Northern India)

中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀

super-(超), inter-(在……之间), -able (能……的), mini-(极少的,微型的),micro-(极微小的), re-(再,反复),sub-(分支的,底下),co-(共同),post- (后) , pre-(前), trans-(超越;转换), under-(在……之下;低于……;不足), -hood (状态;性质;时期), -ish (如……的;有点儿……的); -proof (防……的;……不 能穿透的), -scope (镜), -ship (身份;资格;权力;性质), -some (引起/易于……的), -wards (向), mis-(误;恶), un-(不;非), in-(不;非), im-(不; 非), dis-(不), non- (不;非),-less (不; 无), anti-(反;防), sino-(中国)

练习:

【例1】Don"t listen to his nonsense.

【例2】Jason is a language specialist.

【例3】She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long.

【例4】The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken. Sometimes the weakness

was . So the player could never play the sport again.

【例5】Y ou can take any of the periodicals : The World of English, Foreign Language

Teaching in Schools, or English Learning.

【例6】Apply (涂抹) an antiseptic , such as alcohol (酒精), on the skin.

【例7】 If you are riding a bike when a small child suddenly appears in front of you,

you"ll have to use the front and hind (back) 【例8】 Birds fly with their wing s, and they pick up their foods, and then eat them with

their and they use their for tearing, seizing, pulling or holding objects.

【例9】 Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold.

【例10】 To write, you need a sharp tool and a quick mind (the first of which can be easily

got from a shop).

[No.1](2004年北京卷D 篇)

Kate was . She couldn’t understand why Nadia did not like to speak. Then she realized that moving to a new country probably wasn’t the easiest thing to do.

72.The underlined word ―perplexed‖ probably means ____?

A. puzzled B. angry C. shocked D. serious

[No.2](2004年北京卷B 篇)

Grown-ups also have a sense of . We know that if we put a box in a room and lock the door, the box will still be there when we come back.

69. In the paragraph, ―object permanence‖ means that when out of sight, an object A. still exists B. keeps its shape

C. still stays solid D. is beyond reach

[No.3](2004年辽宁卷A 篇)

Parents who know what’s going on in their teenagers’ lives are in the best position to help them. To break down , parents should create chances to understand what their children want to say, and try to find ways to talk and write to them.

58. Which of the following best explains ―the wall of silence‖ in the last paragraph?

A. Teenagers talk a lot with their friends.

B. Teenagers do not want to understand their parents.

C. Teenagers do not talk much with their parents.

D. Teenagers talk little about their own lives.

阅读小结

在英语试卷中,阅读理解在分数上占到了40分,所以对考试成败有至关重要的作用。可以毫不夸张的说,如果阅读理解题部分没有做好,那么就很难在考试中取得高分。既然阅读理解题如此重要,那么如何提高阅读理解的解题速度和解题正确率就成为一个非常现实的话题了。采用行之有效的解题方法,对攻克阅读解题这一堡垒具有很重要的实用价值,下面具体从四个步骤来展开:

第一步:通读全文,把握文章大意

拿到阅读文章,第一步就是要求通读全文,力争把握文章体裁和脉络,做到能够回答

when, where, who 和what 等问题。

如下面一篇文章:

The lottery of the World Cup draw has handed Asia a golden opportunity to make its wonderful performance yet on the global football stage. December last year, the draw of the 2002 FIFA World Cup finals was as kind as it could have been to three out of four of the Asian teams who will do battle in Japan and South Korea in the summer.

China, Japan and South Korea cart all hold realistic hopes of advancing from what are likely to be closely fought first round groups. Only Saudi Arabia has been left with what looks like an impossible task, after being pooled with Germany, Ireland and African champions Cameroon.

China ’s debut (the first appearance) in the World Cup finals will provide the highlight for the Asian teams, after they were lined up to face Brazil, Turkey and Costa Rica. ―We know Brazil will be difficult but that is okay,‖ said China’s Yugoslav coach Bora Milutinovic. Brazil may have struggled through the South American qualifying competition but few doubt they will be a much more dangerous outfit by the time the action gets underway particularly if star striker Ronaldo completes his comeback from injury. ―Brazil are still Brazil, ‖ acknowledged Milutinovic. ―You can never write them off.‖

For Milutinovic, the match against Costa Rica will be a special occasion. The central American team is one of the four sides he has previously coached at World Cup finals and the team ’s current coach, Alexander Guimaraes, is one of his former assistants.

Being joint hosts, South Korea and Japan, were equally smiled upon by the gods of fortune. South Korea, in particular, will be optimistic about its chances of progressing from a group that includes highly-rated Portugal, the United States and Poland. Japan, likewise, will feel it has a chance against Belgium, Russia and Tunisia. However, both coaches-the Korean’s Dutch coach, Gus Hiddink and Japan’s French coach, Philippe Troussier-played down the suggestions that a place in the second round is assured because no one can predict what will happen before the matches.

在通读全文后,应该知道本文主要讲述的是2002年韩日世界杯分组情况及东亚球队—中国,韩国和日本对分组情况的反应。其中涉及了三支球队的主教练米卢,希丁克,和特鲁西埃的态度。

在第一步阅读文章时,不要字斟句酌,花大量的时间去搞懂生僻单词,词组和专有名词的意思。因为这样会影响解题速度,而且实际上有些生僻单词,词组,及专有名词与题目毫无关系,所以也没有必要搞懂它们的意思。如此文中的Bora Milutinovic, Gus Hiddink, Philippe Troussier三位教练的名字我们根本没有必要花时间去搞懂它们的中文翻译,只要大致上知道他们史中国,韩国,和日本队的 主教练就行了。

第二步:细读题干,查寻转换内容

把握文章大意后,我们必须把注意力集中到文章题目上来。对于题干内容,我们必须要提炼出最能够说明问题的词,词组或句型,然后再在这个基础上从文章中找出同义词,词组或句型,这一遍是带着目的读文章,必须字斟句酌,非常仔细。

就如上面一篇文章,我们看下面一个Question: from the first round?

A. China B. South Korea C. Japan D. Saudi Arabia

在带着关键词进行阅读时我们务必要注意这样一条原则,即一定要转化,千万不要希冀在文章中你会找到与题干主要内容一模一样的单词或词组。如题干中是difficult ,可能在文章中你会发现是no easy job, hard等单词,词组。殊途同归,其实学会转化也就暗示你已经找到了正确答案。

第三步:扫读语块,搜索有效信息

刚才我们已经在文章中找到了与题干吻合的单词,词组或者句型,但我们不能浅尝辄止,而应该继续在这个单词,词组或者句型周围查找,力争找到能够说明问题且有助我们选择正确答案的信息。

如刚才那一道题目,我们以an impossible task 这个词组为中心进行扫读,发现这个有效信息的前面有Only Saudi Arabia 这个字样,那么这就是能够说明问题具有助我们选择正确答案的信息。完成这点,那么这一步就顺利结束了,我们已经能够看到胜利的曙光了。

值得一提的是,有些有效信息并不一定在前面,也可能在后面。有些有效信息在不远处,而有些有效信息遥遥相望,但它肯定在文章中存在着,我们只要练就发现有效信息的火眼金睛就OK 了。

第四步:查读题项,定位正确答案

在第三步搜索到有效信息的基础上,我们进入了最后的攻坚阶段,即临门一脚,找出正确答案的阶段。在这一阶段,我们有时会发现问题解决起来非常简单。如上面一题,根据有效信息Only Saudi Arabia我们可以轻而易举地得出正确答案是D. Saudi Arabia。 但有时我们会遇到一波三折,在这里我们还需要进行转换,即掌握同种意思的不同表达形式。比如:我们通过前面几步得出的有效信息是have a good time,而题项中却没有,只有enjoy oneself,显然,这就是正确答案,因为两者都是“玩的很高兴,很快乐”的意思。

在英语阅读理解中巧用以上四步方法,有助于你把复杂难懂的问题简单化,从而轻松克服阅读难关,在英语考试中取得理想成绩。

育明高中高三英语备课组

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